|The term denotes oscillation of
swaras (notes0. Carnatic music is gamaka oriented. There are two opinions
on the number of gamakas (10 & 15). Some accept the no. as 10 &
some 15. Some opine that the number comes to 15 due to the subdivisions
within the 10 gamakas. The 10 gamakas are called Dhasavidha Gamakas.
Aarohanam : singing the swaras in the akara brigas according to the aarohna krama of the raga.
Avarohanam : singing the swaras in the akara brigas according to the avarohana krama of the raga.
The aarohana, avarohana are generally referred to as brigas.
AVAROHANA : is the descending scale of notes of a raga.
Spuritham : Repeating the same swara wice. While doing so, the second time the swara is said with force. e.g., sasariri
Kampitham : Oscillating the same swara without mixing with its preceding or succeeding note.
Aahatham : Singing the swaras in the aarohana krama, giving the stress on alternate swaras.
Prathyahatham : Singing the swaras in the avarohana krama while stressing the alternate swaras.
Thripuchcham : The swara above will join the two swaras below in the same sruthi. e.g., risasa - gariri
Aandholam : Generally associated with combination of swaras which produce swinging movement. It involves jumping in a swinging manner. e.g., Sarisapapa Sarisamama Sarisagaga
Murchchana : For delineating the character of a raga the arohana, avarohana are successively delineated in a regular ascent from a swara through seven notes and a descent back to the starting note. e.g., Sarigamapadani Rigamapadanisa Nidapamagarisa
The 15 gamakas according to the other school of thought :
Thripam, Spuritham, Kampitham, Leenam, Aandholitham, Vali, Thribinnam, Kurulam, Aahatham, Ullaasitham, Plavitham, Hoompitham, Mudhritham, Naamitham, Misritham.